Instituting Surveillance Guidelines and Adverse Outcomes in Preeclampsia

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the incidence of combined adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with preeclampsia before and after introducing standardized assessment and surveillance.

METHODS:

This study was a preintervention (retrospective) compared with a postintervention (prospective) cohort comparison in a single-tertiary, perinatal unit that included women admitted to hospital with preeclampsia. We interrogated an existing retrospective 24-month database and then introduced the guidelines, assessing the incidence of the combined adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes for 41 months (September 2003 through February 2007). Tests of organ (dys)function were performed at least as often as on the day of admission, admission day +1, every Monday and Thursday, day of delivery, and delivery day +1. All data were checked for errors. The combined maternal outcome was maternal death or one or more of hepatic failure, hematoma, or rupture, Glasgow coma score of less than 13, stroke, at least two seizures, cortical blindness, need for positive inotrope support, myocardial infarction, infusion of any third antihypertensive, renal dialysis, renal transplantation, at least 50% FIO2 for greater than 1 hour, intubation, or transfusion of at least 10 units of blood products. The combined perinatal outcome was perinatal or infant mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, or stage 3–5 retinopathy of prematurity.

RESULTS:

Two hundred ninety-five and 405 women were in the preintervention and postintervention cohorts, respectively. The incidence of adverse maternal outcome fell (5.1% to 0.7%; Fisher P<.001; odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.04–0.49). Perinatal outcomes did not change.

CONCLUSION:

Standardized surveillance of women with preeclampsia was associated with reduced maternal risk.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

II

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