Corticosteroid resistance in mild asthma: markers of persistent inflammation

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Abstract

Background:

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is an important feature of asthma. Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) reduce BHR, probably by suppressing allergic inflammation. There are, however, two groups of asthmatics with either GCS-responsive or non-responsive BHR to methacholine. We investigated the mechanism of non-GCS-responsive BHR in mild asthma.

Methods:

Non-GCS-responsive BHR asthma was defined as failure of reduction of BHR to methacholine after a 2-week course of oral prednisolone (30 mg/day). The expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IFN-γ mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, eosinophil count, serum cortisol, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), and spirometry were measured in five non-GCS-responsive BHR asthmatics and six patients with GCS-responsive BHR asthma before and after prednisolone therapy.

Results:

With the exception of serum ECP and expression of IL-5 mRNA, no significant differences were observed between GCS-responsive BHR and non-GCS-responsive BHR asthma. The mean ECP level was significantly higher in non-GCS-responsive BHR than in GCS-responsive BHR asthma before and after prednisolone therapy. Interleukin-5 mRNA was detected in all asthmatics before prednisolone therapy; however, after prednisolone therapy, IL-5 mRNA was only detected in non-GCS-responsive BHR asthmatics.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that activation of eosinophils appears to persist in some asthmatics with non-GCS-responsive BHR due to continuous IL-5 production by lymphocytes.

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