X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), characterized by a profound deficiency of all immunoglobulins and the absence of mature B cells, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK). Most patients have recurrent sinopulmonary infection. Infections usually occur in multiple locations across time, but single infection may be limited to one anatomic location.Objectives:
To report a case of atypical XLA with recurrent pyoderma and to observe the immunologic changes in the patient in 10 years.Methods:
Immunologic investigations, skin wound culture, and molecular study with DNA sequencing were performed.Results:
The patient was originally diagnosed as having common variable immunodeficiency disease because of the presence of circulating B cells (CD19+ B cells: 7%) at 11 years old. On further evaluation at the age of 20 years, flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes showed only 0.4% B cells. The molecular study with DNA sequencing of the patient showed a point mutation in complementary DNA 1630 A>G(p.R544G) in the BTK gene, indicating that the patient has XLA. The mutation analysis of the BTK gene revealed a normal DNA sequence in the other family members.Conclusions:
This case is an important example of a possible presentation of XLA with a predominant skin manifestation, and it demonstrates that maintaining a high level of clinical suspicion is essential for the diagnosis of XLA in a child with recurrent pyoderma.