Atrial fibrillation is the most common clinically significant dysrhythmia. It has great impact on quality of life especially related to complications such as stroke and heart failure as well as functional status and the cost of chronic treatment. Pharmacologic treatment strategies are now better defined and more efficacious. Side effects of drugs are better understood. Recent clinical studies have contributed recommended treatment guidelines. The identification of atrial ectopic foci in cardiac venous sites has defined targets for isolation ablations. Novel catheter ablation techniques are offering improved prognosis for patients with atrial fibrillation.