Retinyl palmitate injections reduce serum levels and effects of endotoxin on systemic haemodynamics and oxygen transport in the pig

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Retinyl palmitate [(RP) 230 IU · kg-1] modulates the circulatory and respiratory responses of a subsequent infusion of endotoxin in the pig. The aims of this study were: I. To determine if RP (2300 IU· kg-1) affects the serum endotoxin levels in this model.II. To evaluate the effect of this dose of RP on circulatory and respiratory variables in our porcine model. III. To investigate the levels of RP and neutrophil count in porcine endotoxaemia.


Ten anaesthetized pigs were randomly given 2300 IU · kg-1 of RP or the solvent i.m. prior to the continuous i.v. infusion of E. coli endotoxin (10 μg · kg-1 · h-1). Another 4 sham animals were given either i.m. RP (n=2) or i.m. solvent (n=2) followed by an infusion of saline. Haemodynamics and oxygen extraction were monitored and samples taken for analysis of endotoxin, RP and blood cells.


I. Endotoxin levels in serum were lower (P<0.001) in the RP-pretreated pigs. II. These animals had higher cardiac index(P<0.05), mean arterial pressure and left ventricular stroke work index (both P<0.001), and lower oxygen extraction(P<0.01). III. RP-Pre=pretreatment caused a paradoxical decrease in serum retinyl (P<0.001) and a more rapid restitution of neutrophil count (P<0.05).


Pretreatment with RP (2300 IU · kg-1) counteracts the progressive increase in serum endotoxin levels in porcine endotoxaemia.

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