Effects of four anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations and tracheal extubation on QTc interval of the ECG, heart rate and arterial pressure

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Abstract

Background:

Imbalance in cardiac sympathetic tone causes prolongation of the QTc interval of the ECG. On the other hand, impairment of the parasympathetic control of the heart rate caused by anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations might also affect the cardiac sympathetic tone and hence the QTc interval of the ECG. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of four anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations used for the antagonism of the neuromuscular block on the QTc interval of the ECG, heart rate and arterial pressure.

Methods:

Eighty-four ASA class I-II patients with a mean age of 32 to 37 yr undergoing otolaryngological surgery were randomly allocated to one of the following groups: neostigmine 40 μg/kg+glycopyrronium 8 μg/kg (Ne-Glyc), neostigmine 40 μg/kg+atropine 20 μg/kg (Ne-Atr), edrophonium 200μg/kg+atropine 300 μg (Edr-Atr (1)), edrophonium 500 μg/kg+atropine 7μg/kg (Edr-Atr (2)). QTc interval and heart rate were measured by a signal processing method based on an IBM/PC/xT-compatible microcomputer and arterial pressure with a sphygmomanometer at 1-min intervals up to 10 min after the injection of the drugs and immediately and 2 min after extubation. The ECG, lead II, was continuously recorded. Neuromuscular block was measured by a Datex relaxograph.

Results:

In all groups, the most pronounced increase in both QTc interval, heart rate and arterial pressure occurred 1 min after the study drugs and immediately after extubation. In all groups, the mean QTc intervals at 1 and 2 min after the study drugs and after extubation were longer than the upper limit of the normal range (440 ms). Junctional rhythm occurred in 1 to 3 patients in all other groups with the exception of the Edr-Atr(1) group in which no cardiac arrhythmias occurred. At 1 min, the heart rate in the Ne-Atr group was at a significantly higher level than that in the Ne-Glyc group. From 3 to 6 min, the heart rate in the Edr-Atr(2) group and at 3 min in the Edr-Atr(1) group was at a lower level than the heart rate in the Ne-Glyc group.

Conclusions:

On the basis of the present results, anticholinesterase-anticholinergic combinations should be avoided in patients having a long QT interval syndrome or a prolonged QT interval from other causes. In addition, the cardiovascular stimulation caused by tracheal extubation should also be avoided in these patients.

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