Is cerebrovascular autoregulation associated with outcomes after major noncardiac surgery? A prospective observational pilot study

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Abstract

Background:

Studies have identified multiple risk factors for development of cognitive decline after surgery. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation may be a contributor to postoperative cognitive decline.

Methods:

One hundred and forty patients admitted for major elective noncardiac surgery were recruited. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to calculate the tissue oxygenation index of dynamic autoregulation (TOx). The primary endpoint was Day 3 cognitive recovery as assessed using the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale. The secondary endpoint was a combined major adverse event of death, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, and acute kidney injury at Day 30.

Results:

Higher optimal TOx values, signifying impaired autoregulation, were associated with worse outcomes. Patients who cognitively recovered at Day 3 (n = 47) had lower optimal TOx values (TOxopt) than patients who did not recover (n = 22): 0.06 (0.24) vs 0.18 (0.16) (mean [SD]), P = 0.02. Patients who did not suffer a major adverse event (n = 102) had lower TOxopt than patients who did (n = 17): 0.09 (0.21) vs 0.20 (0.27), P = 0.04. When dichotomized as having impaired or intact autoregulation based on TOxopt levels, a value of TOxopt ≥0.1 correctly identified 72.7% of patients who did not cognitively recover, OR 3.3 (1.1-9.9) (Odds ratio, [95% CI]), P = 0.03. TOxopt ≥0.1 correctly identified 82.4% of patients who suffered a major adverse event, OR 4.7 (1.3-17.2), P = 0.02.

Conclusions:

In older and higher risk patients having major noncardiac surgery, impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation was associated with failure of cognitive recovery in the early postoperative period and with 1-month mortality and morbidity.

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