Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Sirolimus Therapy for Asian Patients with Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

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Abstract

Rationale:

Sirolimus has been shown in a randomized, controlled clinical trial to stabilize lung function in patients with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) treated for a 12-month time period; however the pretreatment decline in lung function after the drug was discontinued indicated that continued exposure is required to suppress disease progression.

Objectives:

To elucidate the durability and tolerability of long-term sirolimus treatment in Asian patients with LAM.

Methods:

We conducted a single-arm, open-label, investigator-initiated safety and efficacy study of sirolimus in 63 women with LAM at 9 sites in Japan. Subjects received sirolimus for 2 years at doses adjusted to maintain a trough blood level of 5-15 ng/ml.

Measurements and Main Results:

Fifty-two subjects (82.5%) completed the trial with mean drug compliance of more than 80% overall during the study. The number of adverse events was greatest during the initial 6 months of therapy, but they continued to occur with declining frequency throughout the 2-year study period. Of the 1,549 adverse events, 27 were classified as serious, including reversible sirolimus pneumonitis in 3 patients. New hypercholesterolemia occurred in 30 patients (48%); microcytosis in 10 patients; loss of body weight in 33 patients; and increase in blood pressure that required treatment in 5 patients. FEV1, FVC, and quality-of-life parameters were stable in the overall study cohort during the study period, but baseline to 2-year improvements in lung function occurred in the subset of patients with a prior history of chylothorax.

Conclusions:

Although long-term sirolimus treatment of Asian patients with LAM was associated with a large number of adverse events, including three episodes of pneumonitis, most patients completed the 2-year course of medication with good drug compliance and stable quality of life and lung function.

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