Kaempferol inhibits the growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo

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Abstract

Kaempferol is a flavonoid that has been reported to exhibit antitumor activity in various malignant tumors. However, the role of kaempferol on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely unknown. In this article, we found that kaempferol inhibited proliferation, reduced colony formation ability, and induced apoptosis in HCCC9810 and QBC939 cells in vitro. Results from transwell assay and wound-healing assay demonstrated that kaempferol significantly suppressed the migration and invasion abilities of HCCC9810 and QBC939 cells in vitro. Kaempferol was found to decrease the expression of Bcl-2 and increase the expressions of Bax, Fas, cleaved-caspase 3, cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 9, and cleaved-PARP. In addition, kaempferol also downregulated the levels of phosphorylated AKT, TIMP2, and MMP2. In vivo, it was found that the volume of subcutaneous xenograft (0.15 cm3) in the kaempferol-treated group was smaller than that (0.6 cm3) in the control group. Kaempferol also suppressed the number and volume of metastasis foci in the lung metastasis model, with no marked effects on body weight of mice. Immunohistochemistry assay showed that the number of Ki-67-positive cells was lower in the kaempferol-treated group than that in the control group. We further confirmed that the changes of apoptosis- and invasion-related proteins after kaempferol treatment in vivo were similar to the results in vitro. These data suggest that kaempferol may be a promising candidate agent for the treatment of CCA.

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