MiR-195 has been implicated in inhibiting cell proliferation in different types of tumors. Whether it contributes to the process of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) proliferation remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-195a-5p was highly up-regulated in the TECs isolated from the aging mice. Further experiments showed that miR-195a-5p mimic transfection inhibited the proliferation of mouse medullary thymic epithelial cell line 1 (MTEC1), whereas the transfection of miR-195a-5p inhibitor in MTEC1 had the opposite effect. In addition, miR-195a-5p had no obvious effect on MTEC1 apoptosis. Furthermore, Smad7, a negative regulator of transforming growth factor β pathway, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-195a-5p by luciferase assays. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-195a-5p inhibits MTEC1 proliferation, at least in part, via down-regulation of Smad7.