The ultrastructure of the mitochondrial apparatus of apical tuber cells of original and transgenic (defensin gene-transfected) potatoes have been compared in normal and ambiol-treated plants, using morphometric approaches. No qualitative or quantitative differences were found between the mitochondria of original and transgenic plants under normal conditions (control). Treatment with ambiol produced only quantitative differences (in the number of mitochondria and their volume) between the cells of original and transgenic plants. This observation has been attributed to (1) changes in the physiology and biochemistry of transgenic plants, induced by the expression of the gene of defensin (hormonal balance, functional activity of the plasmalemmata, etc.), and (2) direct effects of ambiol.