The addition of iron hydroxide and iron-reducing bacteria into a reactor for anaerobic processing of sulfate-containing wastewater was shown to decrease sulfate reduction and sulfide concentration, while increasing the total organic carbon (TOC) and methane production. The effect of iron (III) in sulfate-containing wastewater depended on its dose, which can be expressed as molar ratio Fe(III)/SO 42−. Sulfide concentration increased monotonically, reaching 91 and 45 mg/l after 15 days of processing at Fe(III)/SO 42− ratios of 0.06 and 0.5, respectively. However, soluble sulfide production was not observed at ratios equaling 1 and 2. At ratios of 0.06, 0.5, 1, and 2, the maximum rates of TOC removal were 0.75, 1.15, 1.39, and 1.55 g TOC/g of organic matter (OM) per 1 h. Methane production rates were 0.039, 0.047, 0.064, and 0.069 ml/g OM per 1 h, with the mean relative amounts of methane in the biogas being equal to 25, 41, 55, and 62%, respectively. These data can be applied to the development of new methods of anaerobic purification of sulfate-containing wastewater.