Quantitative Characterization of Epicardial Wave Fronts During Regional Ischemia and Elevated Extracellular Potassium Ion Concentration

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Abstract

This study applied zero-delay wave number spectral estimation as a means of quantifying the changes in activation and recovery sequences of propagating plane waves on the epicardial surface of in situ porcine hearts during regional hyperkalemia and ischemia. Unipolar electrograms (104) were recorded from the left ventricular surface of nine hearts using a plaque electrode array with 1 mm spatial sampling intervals. The objectives were (1) to define a set of parameters capable of quantifying the spatial and temporal changes in measured extracellular potentials associated with localized ischemia prior to the onset of conduction block; (2) to elevate regional levels of extracellular potassium ion concentration and quantify potential changes due to this known physiologic manipulation; and (3) to use quantitative parameters to make statistical comparisons in order to distinguish wave fronts during normal, ischemic and hyperkalemic conditions. Results showed that the parameters of wave number and average temporal frequency and the associated power, as determined from the wave number spectrum, provided statistically significant (p < 0.05) quantification of changes in wave front features during normal and ischemic or hyperkalemic conditions. The results were consistent with results obtained from conventional time-space domain methods like isochronal mapping and electrograms, with the advantage of a quantitative result enabling simple comparisons and trend analysis for large numbers of heart beats.

PAC98: 8759Wc, 8722Fy, 8780+s

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