Effects of Radial Wall Motion and Flow Waveform on the Wall Shear Rate Distribution in the Divergent Vascular Graft

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Among the hemodynamic factors influencing intimal hyperplasia in the anastomotic region of a vascular graft, wall shear rate is believed to be one of the most important. We would like to study the effects radial wall motion on the wall shear rate distribution in the end-to-end anastomosis model of an artery and a divergent graft. Rigid and elastic models are constructed and the wall shear rate distributions are measured along the anastomosis using photochromic flow visualization method for carotid and femoral flow waveform. The mean and peak of shear rate decrease along the divergent graft, and the decreases are more significant in the elastic model. The shear rate waves are decomposed using the Fourier transform in order to separate the effects of radial wall motion and geometry. The percentage reductions of mean wall shear rates compared to steady shear rates at mean flow are calculated, and additional 8% (carotid) and 22% (femoral) reductions are observed in the elastic models near the end of the divergent graft. Also radial wall motion decreases the amplitudes of higher harmonics of wall shear rates in the elastic models. Since radial wall motion may affect the flow field differently for different geometry, wall elasticity should be considered in studying arterial hemodynamics.

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