Level of aspiration in college leaders and nonleaders

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Forty college women (20 leaders and 20 nonleaders) were given 10 trials on a simple letter substitution test, as a measure of aspiration level. Reported aspirations of leaders were slightly higher than those of nonleaders, some of whom later admitted having higher private goals which they did not report. The writers consider the data to show that leaders, on the average, have higher aspiration levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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