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The aim of this paper is to characterize a group of patients with internal carotid artery stenosis and to analyze the outcome of internal carotid artery stenosis treatment. The outcome of treatment of 230 patients with internal carotid artery stenosis hospitalized from 1st January 2004 to 31st August 2006 was analyzed. Twenty nine percent of the patients were selected for medical treatment, 70.4% received surgical or endovascular treatment (83.3% of all invasive procedures were endarterectomies, versus 16.7% stenting). The peri-procedural stroke-death rate was 4.9% of patients [3.7% after CEA and 11.1% after CAS (N.S.)]. Statistical analysis disclosed that endarterectomy was associated with a longer in-hospital stay (p < 0.001). In conclusion: Both surgical methods, endarterectomy and stenting are equivalent in safety and present comparable clinical outcomes in selected subgroups of patients (classified to the specific procedure on the basis of the type of atherosclerotic plaque).