Significance of TNM staging, Demographic and Histologic Features in Predicting the Prognosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma

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Abstract

Background :

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinical, demographic and detailed histopathological parameters in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods :

A total of 102 patients who underwent partial or radical nephrectomy for a renal mass between 2008 and 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Fuhrman grade, TNM stage, macroscopic satellite tumor nodule formation, histopathological subtype, renal vein invasion (RVI), necrosis, microvessel invasion (MVI), sarcomatoid differentiation and overall survival (OS) were evaluated to determine prognostic factors.

Results :

The 102 patients consisted of 73 with clear cell tumor, 15 with papillary tumor, 12 with chromophobe tumor and 2 collecting duct RCC cases. A statistically negative relationship was observed between increasing age and OS when the patients were grouped as above and under 40 years of age. There was no statistical relationship between OS and histopathological subtype, adrenal gland invasion, and lymph node metastasis. The risk of death was 10-fold increased in patients with stage 4 tumor compared to patients with stage 1 tumor. Statistically significant macroscopical parameters for OS were satellite tumor nodule presence, Fuhrman grade, tumor size, renal sinus and perinephric fat invasion, distant metastasis, and RVI. The risk of death was 13-fold higher in cases with sarcomatoid differentiation. There was a strong correlation between the presence of a satellite tumor nodule, necrosis, sarcomatoid differentiation and the tumor stage. A statistically negative correlation was observed between OS and the MVI, sarcomatoid differentiation, and necrosis.

Conclusion :

We found the Fuhrman grade, tumor size, renal sinus and perinephric fat invasion, distant metastasis, RVI, MVI, sarcomatoid differentiation, necrosis and satellite tumor nodule to be all statistically significant parameters for OS. The addition of other variables to the TNM stage and grade may improve the prediction of outcomes for RCC patients.

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