Mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) is a heterocomplex composed of 4 α-subunits containing LCEH (long-chain 2,3-enoyl-CoA hydratase) and LCHAD (long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) activity, and 4 β-subunits that harbor LCKT (long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase) activity. MTP deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes a clinical spectrum of diseases ranging from severe infantile cardiomyopathy to mild chronic progressive polyneuropathy. Here, we report the case of a Korean male newborn who presented with severe lactic acidosis, seizures, and heart failure. A newborn screening test and plasma acylcarnitine profile analysis by tandem mass spectrometry showed an increase of 3-hydroxy species: 3-OH-palmitoylcarnitine, 0.44 nmol/ml (reference range, RR <0.07); 3-OH-linoleylcarnitine, 0.31 nmol/ml (RR <0.06); and 3-OH-oleylcarnitine, 0.51 nmol/ml (RR <0.04). These findings suggested either long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase deficiency or complete MTP deficiency. By molecular analysis of the HADHB gene, the patient was found to be a compound heterozygote for c.358dupT (p.A120CfsX8) and c.1364T>G (p.V455G) mutations. These 2 mutations of the HADHB gene were novel and inherited. Although the patient was treated by reduction of glucose administration and supplementation of a medium-chain triglyceride-based diet with L-carnitine, he died 2 mo after birth due to advanced cardiac failure.