Misdiagnosis Analysis of Cervical Minimal Deviation Adenocarcinoma: a Report of Three Rare Cases and Literature Review

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Cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) is a rare variant of cervical adenocarcinoma that is difficult to diagnose due to the deep location, endogenous growth pattern, deceptively benign appearance of tumor cells, and lack of connection to human papillomavirus (HPV). Cytological evaluation and biopsies offer suboptimal detection and transvaginal sonography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) only reveal multiple lesions that mimic multiple benign nabothian cysts. Besides, standard screening, diagnostic tools, and treatments are not established. Thus, MDA tends to be misdiagnosed with other gynecological diseases. In this study, we examine three cases with extensive abdominal metastasis and adhesions, which are not initially associated clinically with HPV and cervical malignancies. All cases were misdiagnosed as nabothian cysts, endometrial adenocarcinoma or ovarian cancer, though finally diagnosed as MDA by postoperative pathology. Delay in diagnosis and treatment can result in irreversible outcomes. Misdiagnoses are analyzed and suggestions for improving early detection are discussed with a brief review of the literature.

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