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To measure the association between institutional investment in high-value care (HVC) performance improvement and resident HVC experiences.The authors analyzed data from two 2014 surveys assessing institutions’ investments in HVC performance improvement as reported by program directors (PDs) and residents’ perceptions of the frequency of HVC teaching, participation in HVC-focused quality improvement (QI), and views on HVC topics. The authors measured the association between institutional investment and resident-reported experiences using logistic regression, controlling for program and resident characteristics.The sample included 214 programs and 9,854 residents (59.3% of 361 programs, 55.2% of 17,851 residents surveyed). Most PDs (158/209; 75.6%) reported some support. Residents were more likely to report HVC discussions with faculty at least a few times weekly if they trained in programs that offered HVC-focused faculty development (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.37; P = .01), that supported such faculty development (OR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.04–1.41; P = .02), or that provided physician cost-of-care performance data (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.03–1.39; P = .02). Residents were more likely to report participation in HVC QI if they trained in programs with a formal HVC curriculum (OR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.48–2.27; P < .001) or with HVC-focused faculty development (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.15–1.85; P = .002).Institutional investment in HVC-related faculty development and physician feedback on costs of care may increase the frequency of HVC teaching and resident participation in HVC-related QI.