Cigarette smoking, coffee intake and alcohol consumption preceding Parkinson's disease: a case–control study

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A case–control study was performed in Belgrade in order to investigate the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption.


During the period 2001–2005, 110 new PD cases and 220 hospital controls were interviewed. Cases and controls were matched by sex, age and place of residence (urban/rural). For the analysis of data conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used.


With PD were associated, independently from each other, current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23–0.82], alcohol consumption (OR = 4.78; 95% CI = 2.67–8.55) and coffee consumption (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.36–4.75). In ever smokers the risk for PD significantly decreased with the increasing number of cigarettes smoked and with increasing duration of smoking. The risk for PD significantly increased with the increasing quantity of alcohol consumption. PD risk was significantly higher in subjects whose average daily consumption of coffee was 1 and 2–3 cups, and it was lower (but not significantly) in those whose daily coffee consumption was 4+ cups. Cases and controls did not differ in duration of alcohol and coffee consumption. The results of multivariate analyses did not substantially change after adjustment on family history positive on PD.


The findings of this study support the hypotheses of inverse association of smoking with PD, but an inverse association with coffee was not confirmed. PD was found to be positively associated with coffee and alcohol consumption.

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