Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is characterized by selective neuronal loss and gliosis in CA1 and the subiculum and has been associated with several disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-U), vascular dementia and some tauopathies. In some cases, HS is not associated with other degenerative pathologies. Such cases are sometimes referred to as HS dementia (HSD). Differences between HSD and HS in the setting of FTLD-U have not been systematically investigated. To this end, eight cases of HSD and ten cases of HS associated with FTLD-U were studied with Nissl and periodic acid-Schiff stains to assess neuronal loss and corpora amylacea, respectively. Sections were immunostained with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein, HLA-DR and synaptophysin and immunoreactivity was measured with image analysis in CA1 and the subiculum of each case. Additionally, sections were immunostained with antibodies to 4-R tau to determine the presence of argyrophilic grains. HSD was different from HS associated with FTLD-U. Specifically, it was more common in the elderly, and it was associated with more marked neuronal and synaptic loss and with greater reactive gliosis. Corpora amylacea tended to be more frequent in HSD than in FTLD-U, but there was no difference in frequency of argyrophilic grains.