Major Central European’s contributions to international ophthalmology The fundamentals of modern ophthalmology were created in Europe in 18th and 19th centuries. At that time, Central European states were not independent, and majority were occupied by neighbouring countries, like Russia, Prussia and Austro-Hungary. This political situation significantly limited the development of science and medicine in those countries. Scientific development was hindered by such factors as poor investment in research, decreased number of universities, emigration of some researchers due to political reasons or due to the lack of adequate academic background. In spite of numerous complications, many interesting discoveries and observations were made in Central Europe at that time, even though the origin of most of them is now forgotten. The aim of this study is to present some major achievements of important contributors to international ophthalmology originating from Central Europe, including Witelo, Purkinje, Szokalski, Wicherkiewicz, Galezowski, Borysiekiewicz, Goldzieher, Blaskovics, Imre Jr., Kettesy, Krwawicz, Wilczek, Wichterle and others.