Disturbances in retinal oxygenation are believed to play an important role in several eye diseases, such as retinal vessel occlusions, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Non-invasive measurements of retinal oxygenation are important for better understanding of disease mechanisms and the technology will hopefully, in the near future, aid in management of the diseases. The technology for retinal oximetry has been developed in the past years and decades and the current oximeters are sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation and give repeatable results. Studies have confirmed differences in retinal vessel oxygen saturation in various eye diseases. Further studies of retinal oxygenation will benefit from development of the methodology. This includes hardware and software development but also standardisation of measurement techniques with the current instruments and better understanding of confounding factors.