This talk will overview the pathophysiology of non-infectious uveitis in relation to recent SUN (standardised uveitis nomenclature) disease classification. The experimental and translational human evidence of autoimmunity and activation of immunity will be discussed. In addition the talk will highlight the pathways and mechanisms of tissue damage that results in sight-threatening disease.Traditionally, despite active immune regulatory mechanisms operative within the ocular environment, inflammation still occurs. Activated antigen and non-antigen specific T cells are generated in uveitis. The interplay with innate immunity and in particular cells of myeloid lineage both systemically and within the local environment dictate the severity and extent of pathology we observe. The understanding of immune responses during the uveitis open many avenues to potential novel immunotherapies that not only suppress inflammation but attempt to redress immune balance, tolerance and local homeostasis within ocular tissues.