Imaging in uveitis: techniques and indications

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This tutorial will address the main complementary imaging techniques used in the field of (posterior) uveitis. In case imaging work-up is decided, fluorescein angiography (FA) is performed routinely since a few decades. FA gives information on the superficial structures and lesions of the fundus including pathology of the retina, retinal vessels, optic disc, and subretinal fluid collection, as well as the RPE for which it is the examination method of choice, and the choriocapillaris in the first seconds of angiography. Most of the time it only confirms and gives the precise extension of lesions already identified by the clinical examination. The choroid is however involved at least as often as the retina and often all or part of choroidal lesions are occult and not detected by the clinical exam or FA. Only indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) gives visual access to choroidal inflammatory pathology where it can distinguish stromal choroidits (birdshot, VKH) from choriocapillaritis (MEWDS, APMPPE, etc). So if angiography is deemed necessary during initial appraisal of a case dual FA/ICGA should be performed as choroiditis can not be excluded “à priori”. Other methods addressed will be OCT, UBM, FAF as well as anterior segment OCT.

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