Behçet disease, VKH, sarcoidosis

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Ocular involvement associated with Behçet disease is characterized by a relapsing remitting panuveitis with diffuse vitritis, retinal infiltrates, and occlusive vasculitis. Proper management relies on the early use of immunosuppressive drugs in combination with corticosteroids and administration of biologic agent in resistant and severe posterior segment involvement. VKH disease is a bilateral panuveitis that may be associated with extraocular manifestations. Exudative retinal detachment, associated with typical imaging findings, is the most specific feature to acute VKH disease. Sunset glow fundus is typical to chronic VKH disease. Complications are more likely to occur in the chronic recurrent phase. The mainstay of treatment for acute VKH disease relies on systemic corticosteroid therapy for at least 6 months. Immunosuppressive therapy is mainly used in chronic recurrent disease. Main ocular features of sarcoidosis include bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis, vitritis with snowballs, multifocal chorioretinitis, and segmental periphlebitis. Diagnosis may be challenging in the absence of apparent systemic involvement. Treatment of sarcoidosis is based on corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, in severe cases.

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