Ocular surface bacterial infections affect subjects of all ages with a high frequency in newborns and children. In infant, children and teenagers, the most common ocular pathogens, which differ from adults, are Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and also Moraxella species. These infections could lead to ulcers and sight-threatening complications. Corneal infections are not common but can be difficult to diagnose because the pathology can develop without pain. In addition the examination may be difficult to perform. The treatment should be provided earlier and aims to eliminate the bacteria, virus or fungal pathogens. The specific epidemiology of pathogens will be detailed according to the age. Risks of visual impairment and amblyopia must be integrated. An update on topical antibiotics and current options will be reviewed with practical aspects, diverse clinical cases and considering quality of life of the children and parents.