In this part of the course the most important pathology of the internal eye structures will be explained from front to back side of the eye. The malignant tumors of adults (melanoma, metastasis, lymphoma) and children (retinoblastoma) will be covered, but also the differential diagnosis and important consequences of non-malignant diseases (sympathetic ophthalmia). Newer technologies can be incorporated in the pathologic examination which can have far reaching consequences for the patients. Enucleation and the difference with evisceration specimens will be discussed. Newer methods for fine needle aspiration biopsy (in solid tumors) and vitreal biopsies ( cells in the vitreal fluid) in malignant and inflammatory processes will be explained.