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Neuro-ophthalmologic disorders in the patient with cancer Paraneoplastic syndromes Background: Paraneoplastic syndromes are caused by remote effect of cancer rather than direct invasion. Objective: Review of paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmic manifestations, differential diagnosis, diagnostic workup and proposed pathophysiology will be presented. Methods: Literature review along with representative case presentations. Results: Overall incidence of remote effect of cancer is 10-15 % of all cancers. The number of autoantibodies in association with paraneoplastic syndromes is accumulating. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic syndrome with ocular manifestation may be the first sign of malignancy, and therefore ophthalmologist may play a crucial role in early detection and timely treatment with potential improvement of the disease course.