Age macular degeneration-alzheimer disease in-between correlations: One year screening, follow-up and outcome

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Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the evolution of the AMD-AD correlations and their in-between impact.

Methods

PATIENTS: AMD patients: 240 patients, 3 Groups A, B, C. A: 70 AMD patients with first stage AMD,B: 64 Atrophy AMD patients with predominant atrophic areas, C:106 Neovascular AMD patients, with Neovascular AMD. AD patients: 240 patients, 4 groups.I:70 Normal,no significative patients;II:127 MCI patients,(4 subgroups: mild, moderate,intense,severe); III :29 Early AD; IV:14 AD. EXAM: ophthalmologic exam included ETDRS visual acuity (VA), complete ophthalmic examination, Fundus examination, autofluorescence imaging(FAF),(Region Finder Software,for atrophic areas),optical coherence tomography (Spectral Domain OCT) (OCT en face software), and fluorescein angiography (FA) and ICG when Neovascular complication. Cognitive evaluation is done with MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein, GRECO), score allow to determine various groups and subgroups. Each AMD patient, would have besides cognitive evaluation,and each AD patients, ophthalmologic evaluation. Follow-up was done every 4 months.

Results

Cognitive impairment differ in each AMD subgroup: Normal score: mild in group A(37%),more in group B(23%)than in group C(35%).MCI was predominant(A:63%,B:77%,C:62%)and the most in group B. Early stage AD:3% only in group C.After1year follow-up, we observe more moderate cognitive impairment in Group B, few but the most severe worsening in Group C. AMD ophthalmologic signs are predictive and precursor for AD,and more than AD for AMD. Fundus examination and even more (FAF, OCT)are useful and needed to enhance AD screening and follow-up.

Conclusion

The AMD-AD correlations are confirmed,enhance AMD as marker for AD,improve AMD and AD screening and knowledge.

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