The prevalence of glaucoma has been suggested to be higher in vitrectomized patients than in the overall population. The mechanisms behind this reported higher prevalence are largely unknown but literature suggests that overall ocular physiology would be impaired in vitrectomized patients. The current theories on the importance of the vitreous body in ocular oxidative stress will be discussed. Furthermore, a review of the underlying diseases needing a vitrectomy and their relationship to glaucoma will be reviewed. Practical aspects such as decision making of combining cataract surgery to vitrectomy, membrane peeling and post-operative management of vitrectomized patients will be analyzed from the perspective of a glaucoma specialist.