Visual outcome in Sturge–Weber syndrome: a systematic review and Dutch multicentre cohort

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Visual functions in Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS) may be impaired by glaucoma, diffuse choroidal haemangioma (DCH) or leptomeningeal angioma. The aim of this study was to gain better insight in the visual deficits of SWS patients. A systematic literature search using PubMed and Embase medical databases was performed to identify articles describing visual acuity (VA) and/or visual field (VF) findings in SWS patients. In addition, a Dutch multicentre cohort with 33 SWS patients was collected and the combined results of VA and VF findings are presented. Visual acuity results of 25 studies and VF results of 12 studies were suitable for data extraction. Description of the combination of both VA and VF findings was scarce. Homonymous hemianopia (HH) was present in 42% of SWS patients. Seventy per cent of eyes had a (near) normal vision, while VA of eyes with glaucoma or DCH was severely impaired in 28% and 67%, respectively. In the Dutch cohort, only 18% (6/33) of patients had (near) normal findings of both visual parameters. In addition, half of the patients with glaucoma suffered from a combination of a HH and VA impairment. In conclusion, although SWS patients are exposed to severe functional visual impairment due to the possible cumulative consequences of glaucoma, DCH and cerebral injury, description of the combination of both VA and VF results is scarce in the literature. Particularly, the combination of visual impairment due to glaucoma or DCH, and HH might be invalidating.

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