To investigate associations of very early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with daily intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc and copper and interactions with AMD-associated polymorphisms incomplement factor H(CFHY402H)andARMS2/LOC387715.Methods:
Cross-sectional study of 848 subjects aged 30–60 years from the Inter99 Eye Study. Daily intake of vitamins and minerals was estimated from a 198-item food frequency questionnaire. Digital fundus photographs were recorded in red-free illumination and graded for macular drusen >63μm and numerous (>20) small hard macular drusen as a mean of both eyes.Results:
Higher intake of vitamin A increased the risk of having macular drusen >63μm with odds ratio = 1.82 (CI95 1.02–3.24, p = 0.042) comparing participants in the highest quartile of vitamin A intake with participants in the lowest quartile, adjusted for recruitment group, age and sex. There was a significant interaction withCFHY402H(p = 0.038). Among 504 participants withCFHY402H, the relative risk of having macular drusen >63μm was increased in participants in the highest quartile of vitamin A intake (odds ratio = 2.58; CI95 1.16–5.73, p = 0.020) and in the second highest quartile (odds ratio = 3.27; CI95 1.50–7.13, p = 0.0029) compared with the lowest quartile. Further adjusting for total fat intake, energy intake, plasma cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol intake, education and physical activity strengthened the association.Conclusions:
In this cross-sectional study, a higher intake of vitamin A increased the risk of macular drusen >63μm in subjects withCFHY402H. The study supports that vitamin A may be a risk factor for early AMD.