Nosocomial transmission ofMycobacterium tuberculosisin kangaroo mother care units: A risk in tuberculosis-endemic areas

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Background and aim:

Kangaroo mother care (KMC) has become the standard of care for low-risk preterm babies born in developing countries. However, the potential risk of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within KMC units, particularly in tuberculosis-endemic areas, has not been explored. We report an infant (sentinel case) who was admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with extensive pulmonary tuberculosis.

Methods and results:

When interviewed, the mother reported no household contact with a tuberculosis source case, but mentioned that she shared a KMC room with someone who had symptoms suspicious of tuberculosis. We found molecular evidence that nosocomial transmission of M. tuberculosis occurred within the KMC unit and conducted a contact investigation of all infants exposed to this infectious source case during her stay in the KMC unit.


We present the findings of the contact investigation and discuss the implications of these findings for KMC units, particularly in tuberculosis-endemic areas.

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