To review the evidence for optimal oxygen use in preterm infants.Results:
Clinicians have embraced lower saturation targets to minimize retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Large randomized trials now have shown that while such targets reduce ROP, neonatal mortality is increased significantly.Conclusions:
Preterm infants should be resuscitated with blended oxygen (30–90%) targeted to avoid hyperoxia. Later, saturation management remains uncertain. Until ongoing trials and follow-up are complete, it is prudent to avoid saturation of 85–89%.