In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of chronic vasopressin administration on renal medullary oxygen levels.Methods:
Adult Sprague Dawley or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats were treated with the vasopressin V2 receptor agonist, desmopressin (5 ng/h; 3d), or its vehicle via osmotic minipumps. Immunostaining for pimonidazole and the transcription factor HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) were used to identify hypoxic areas. Activation of HIF-target gene expression following desmopressin treatment was studied by microarray analysis.Results:
Pimonidazole staining was detected in the outer and inner medulla of desmopressin-treated rats, whereas staining in control animals was weak or absent. HIF-1α immunostaining demonstrated nuclear accumulation in the papilla of desmopressin-treated animals, whereas no staining was observed in the controls. Gene expression analysis revealed significant enrichment of HIF-target genes in the group of desmopressin-regulated gene products (P = 2.6*10−21). Regulated products included insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1 and 3, angiopoietin 2, fibronectin, cathepsin D, hexokinase 2 and cyclooxygenase 2.Conclusion:
Our results demonstrate that an activation of the renal urine concentrating mechanism by desmopressin causes renal medullary hypoxia and an upregulation of hypoxia-inducible gene expression.