Chronic glucocorticoid treatment enhances lipogenic activity in visceral adipocytes of male Wistar rats

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Abstract

Aim:

Glucocorticoid (GC) in excess promotes the redistribution of adipose tissue from peripheral to central sites of the body. In this study, we characterized an experimental condition of prolonged GC excess and investigated its effect on the lipogenic metabolism in white adipose tissue.

Methods:

Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into control (CON) and dexamethasone-treated (DEX) groups. DEX group received dexamethasone (0.25 mg kg−1 day−1) during 4 weeks, while CON group received saline. Animals were killed and subcutaneous (SC), retroperitoneal (RP) and mesenteric (MS) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation, morphometric cell analysis and incorporation of glucose into lipids.

Results:

The treatment effectively blocked hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, as verified by a 58% decrease in plasma corticosterone levels and 19% atrophy in adrenal glands in DEX group. Animals from DEX group presented insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and increased insulin and leptin plasma levels and hypertrophied adipocytes. They showed increased lipogenesis in RP and MS depots, with increased incorporation of glucose into fatty acids of triacylglycerol. Increased activity of lipogenic enzymes ATP-citrate lyase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic was only seen in the MS depot in DEX group, while gene expression of these enzymes was enhanced in SC and MS fat depots.

Conclusion:

The adaptations promoted by GC treatment in adipose metabolism seemed to be mainly due to the increased activity of enzymes that supply the NADPH required for lipogenesis than to the increase in enzymes that more directly deal with fatty acid synthesis itself.

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