The mammalian urinary bladder receives dual innervation. The excitatory innervation is considered to be partly cholinergic and partly mediated via NANC-receptors. Several (co-)transmitters have been suggested. The adrenergic inhibitory innervation is mediated via α- and β-receptors. Female sex hormones could change autonomic influence of urogenital organs. It was considered to be of interest to characterize the spontaneous and nerve stimulation-induced muscular activity in the urinary bladder of the female guinea-pig during the oestrus cycle. Both the spontaneous activity and nerve-induced activity varied according to the hormonal status of the animal. An α-adrenergic inhibitory influence was identified. It was further confirmed that the excitatory innervation could not be blocked by the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine, while α-β-methylene ATP partly inhibited nerve stimulation-induced smooth muscle response, most prominent at cycle day 6. Indomethacin did not impair spontaneous activity or nerve stimulation-induced activity. Nitric oxide reduced nerve stimulation-induced responses on cycle day 12. Imperative urinary bladder contractions are reported to diminish after oestrogen use and in the female a hormonal effect of the nervous influence on the urinary bladder smooth muscle is suggested.