The neurohormonal control of the migrating motor complex (MMC) is not fully understood. The hypothesis of the present study was that neuropeptide levels might vary with the different phases of the MMC and that a similar variation might be found in the secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, plasma and intraduodenal concentrations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) were determined by radioimmunoassay every 10 min during two complete MMC cycles in eight male subjects. For comparison, plasma motilin (MOT) concentrations were measured. Plasma concentrations of MOT (mean peak value ± SEM; 39 ± 6 pmol L−1), but none of the neuropeptides studied, showed a cyclic variation in plasma with the different phases of the MMC. Peak intraduodenal concentrations of VIP (79 ± 23 pmol L−1), SOM (2437 ± 432 pmol L−1) and SP (718 ± 326 pmol L−1) occurred at or at the time point before the onset of phase III of the MMC. No such correlation was observed for NKA. These results demonstrate that intraduodenal but not plasma concentrations of the neuropeptides VIP, SOM and SP show an association with phase III of the MMC. The biological relevance of this finding is yet unclear, but the results raise the possibility that gut neuropeptides may regulate fasting motility through a luminal release.