Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors Inhibit Phorbol Myristate Acetate and Cytokine-Induced HIV-1 Expression Chronically Infected U1 Cells
Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding protein-1 (r-hTBP-1) and recombinant human soluble dimeric TNF receptor (rhu TNFR:Fc) were used to determine the relative contributions of TNF to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and cytokine-induced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in chronically infected cell lines. Treatment of HIV-1-infected promonocytic U1 cells with r-hTBP-1 or rhu TNFR:Fc reduced PMA-induced HIV-1 p24 antigen production in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximal inhibition of approximately 90%. Maximal inhibition of p24 antigen production in T-lymphocytic ACH-2 cells was 47% with r-hTBP-1 and 42% with rhu TNFR:Fc. r-hTBP-1 and rhu TNFR:Fc also decreased p24 antigen synthesized by U1 cells in response to other stimuli, including phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced supernatant, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-6, and TNF. Addition of r-hTBP-1 to U1 cells during the last 4 h of a 24 h incubation with PMA still inhibited p24 antigen production by 15%. U1 cells stimulated with 10-7M PMA released ≈1 ng/ml endogenous TBP-1 with an initial peak observed at 1 h and a second peak at 24 h after PMA stimulation. r-hTBP-1 also partially reversed inhibition of U1 cellular proliferation caused by PMA. Both r-hTBP-1 and rhu TNFR:Fc blocked PMA induction of nuclear factor (NK)-κB DNA-binding activity in U1 cells in association with decreases in HIV-1 replication. We conclude that soluble TNF receptors can inhibit stimuli-induced HIV-1 expression and NF-κB DNA-binding activity in chronically infected U1 cells.