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Mirtazapine is an antidepressant first approved in the Netherlands in 1994 for the treatment of major depressive disorder. However, evidence suggests its effectiveness in a variety of other psychiatric disorders and non-psychiatric medical conditions.The present paper reviews the published literature on the off-label indications of Mirtazapine.A search of the relevant literature from MEDLINE, PsycLIT and EMBASE databases, included in the Science Citation Index and available up to March 2006, was conducted using the terms mirtazapine, case-reports, open-label trials and randomized controlled trials. Only articles referring to conditions other than major depression were included in this present review.Off-label use of mirtazapine has been reported in panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dysthymia, menopausal depression, poststroke depression, depression as a result of infection with human immunodeficiency virus, elderly depression, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced depression, hot flashes, alcohol and other substance use disorders, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, tension-type headaches, cancer pain, fibromyalgia, schizophrenia and other less frequent conditions.So far, data on the off-label usefulness of mirtazapine are limited and mainly based on observations from case reports or open-label studies. However, positive cues suggest that confirmation of these preliminary data with randomized controlled trials may give sufficient evidence to warrant the use of mirtazapine in a broad range of disorders.