Association of ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome with ischaemic heart disease, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus

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ABSTRACT.Purpose:To determine the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) in Lithuanian urban population and its association with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods:In this population-based study, 1065 participants aged 45–72 years were randomly drawn from the population register of Kaunas, Lithuania. They were classified as having PEX if any pseudoexfoliation material was determined by a slit-lamp examination in at least one eye. The data were acquired from questionnaire; register of myocardial infarction, electrocardiogram, biochemical blood analyses and blood pressure measurement were used to determine IHD, AH, DM and smoking habits. Poststratification weights based on Kaunas population sex and age distribution were applied.Results:Pseudoexfoliation syndrome was estimated in 9% of a population. The AH rate was higher in PEX subjects than in non-PEX subjects (p = 0.017) and the rates of IHD, DM and cholesterol levels did not differ statistically significantly. Chi-square linear-by-linear association test found higher AH rate in unilateral PEX subjects and even higher AH rate in bilateral PEX subjects than in non-PEX subjects (p = 0.014). Pseudoexfoliation syndrome increased odds for AH by 1.8 times (p = 0.021). Median of systolic blood pressure was higher in the PEX group than in non-PEX group (p = 0.04). But all associations could not be confirmed after adjusting for age. Smoking duration increased age-adjusted odds for PEX. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome did not increase risk for IHD, AH or DM.Conclusions:Pseudoexfoliation syndrome prevalence is high in Lithuania. No clear PEX association with IHD, AH and DM was proven after controlling for effect of age.

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