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To determine the value of electroretinography (ERG) and visual evoked potential (VEP) in predicting visual outcome in patients undergoing osteo-keratoprosthesis (OKP) or osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery.We performed a retrospective cohort study of 143 eyes in 101 patients who underwent OKP or OOKP surgery. The subjects underwent ERG, VEP testing or both up to 6 months prior to surgery. The ERG and VEP results were classified into four categories based on wave amplitude, latency and configuration. The main outcome was the maximum best-corrected visual acuity (maxBCVA) reached at any time postoperatively.One hundred thirty-four cases had undergone preoperative ERG, 82 VEP and 73 both examinations. The sensitivities of ERG and VEP to detect maxBCVA ≥ 0.05 were 68.5% and 87%, respectively, while the specificity was 63.2% for ERG and 47.4% for VEP. The maxBCVA was significantly better in patients with normal ERG (p = 0.033) and those with normal VEP (p = 0.048), once having defined appropriate normal and abnormal cut-off levels. When comparing fellow eyes in patients who underwent surgery in both eyes, maxBCVA was better in the eyes that had better VEP results (p = 0.013).Eyes demonstrating normal ERG or VEP achieved better visual outcome than those with abnormal results. In addition, VEP proved instrumental in determining the eye with the best prognosis when comparing both eyes of a given patient.