Update in intracranial pressure evaluation methods and translaminar pressure gradient role in glaucoma

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ABSTRACT.Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Historically, it has been considered an ocular disease primary caused by pathological intraocular pressure (IOP). Recently, researchers have emphasized intracranial pressure (ICP), as translaminar counter pressure against IOP may play a role in glaucoma development and progression. It remains controversial what is the best way to measure ICP in glaucoma. Currently, the ‘gold standard’ for ICP measurement is invasive measurement of the pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid via lumbar puncture or via implantation of the pressure sensor into the brains ventricle. However, the direct measurements of ICP are not without risk due to its invasiveness and potential risk of intracranial haemorrhage and infection. Therefore, invasive ICP measurements are prohibitive due to safety needs, especially in glaucoma patients. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate ICP non-invasively, including transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, tympanic membrane displacement, ophthalmodynamometry, measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter and two-depth transcranial Doppler technology. Special emphasis is put on the two-depth transcranial Doppler technology, which uses an ophthalmic artery as a natural ICP sensor. It is the only method which accurately and precisely measures absolute ICP values and may provide valuable information in glaucoma.

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