Regeneration of plantlets of guava (Psidium guajavaL.) from somatic embryos developed under salt-stress condition
The present study demonstrates the regeneration of plantlets of guava (Psidium guajava L.) from somatic embryos developed under salt-stress conditions. With increasing concentrations of NaCl in induction medium (MS + 4.52 μM 2,4-d + 5% sucrose) from 0 to 200 mM, the number of somatic embryos per responsive explant decreased. Somatic embryos induced on 0–100 mM NaCl containing medium developed into torpedo stages, whereas, the development of somatic embryos that differentiated on 150 and 200 mM NaCl-supplemented medium was arrested prior to torpedo stage and did not undergo maturation phase. Somatic embryos that developed on NaCl-containing medium, showed better germination in the presence of NaCl as compared with those developed on medium without NaCl. The effect of increasing salt-stress was also investigated on plant growth, chlorophyll and carotenoids, Na+ and K+, and proline and glycine betaine accumulation in in vitro grown plantlets. The level of Na+ in leaves increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl in the medium. Accumulation of free proline and glycine betaine in leaves significantly increased with increasing salinity. The results suggest that accumulation of proline and glycine betaine may be important for osmotic adjustment in guava under salinity stress.