Clinicopathologic and Molecular Pathology of Collecting Duct Carcinoma and Related Renal Cell Carcinomas

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Abstract

Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) and related tumors [ie, renal medullary carcinoma (RMC)] are rare types of highly aggressive renal cell carcinomas (RCC) with poor prognosis. Because of the rarity and diagnostic uncertainty of them, their molecular pathology and significance have not yet been fully elucidated. CDC, RMC, fumarate hydratase–deficient RCC (including hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC-associated RCC HLRCC-RCC), and recently reported anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearrangement RCC have significant morphologic overlaps, but they are separately distinct entities having different molecular pathway and clinical settings. CDC is more likely to occur in middle to old age population with immunoreactivity for PAX8 and integrase interactor-1 proteins (INI-1). Various chromosomal and genomic alterations have been reported with inconsistent results. In contrast, RMC is more likely to occur in younger patients with sickle cell trait. In RMC, loss of INI-1 expression and OCT3/4 expression are distinguished compared with other RCCs. Finally, ALK-rearrangement RCC seems to have 2 different clinical settings, one with sickle cell trait (VCL-ALK fusion) and the other without (other fusions such as TPM3-ALK, EML4-ALK, and STRN-ALK fusions). Interestingly, VCL-ALK fusion was found in pediatric patients with sickle cell trait, whereas other fusions were detected in adolescent or adult without sickle cell trait. Taken together, CDC and related tumors such as RMC, fumarate hydratase–deficient RCC (including hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC-associated RCC), and ALK-rearrangement RCC are the distinct entities and their recognition is important for the development of future personalized therapeutic options. This review updates the clinicopathologic features of these tumors with overlapping morphology and outcome.

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