Outcome of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes intensively treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or conventional therapy. A case-control study

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Abstract

The aim was to evaluate and compare the outcome of pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) intensively treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple daily injections (MDI). Twenty-nine women with T1D receiving CSII during pregnancy as intensive insulin therapy (27 started CSII during pregnancy planning while 2 started CSII during the 1st month of gestation) were matched for age, duration of T1D, White's classification, BMI before gestation, parity and HbA1c before pregnancy with 29 women treated with MDI. Metabolic control and acute complications were registered including ketoacidosis and severe hypoglycaemic episodes, and the development of hypertension induced by pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. Perinatal mortality, stillbirth, minor and major congenital malformations, macrosomia, weeks at delivery, caesarean section and perinatal complications were also recorded. As expected, there were no differences between the two groups in terms of age, duration of the disease, White's classification, BMI before gestation, parity and HbA1c before pregnancy. The proportion of subjects who received preconceptional guidance and planned pregnancy did not differ between groups. No differences were observed in HbA1c, insulin dose and BMI throughout gestation in either group of patients. Maternal, foetal and perinatal outcome were similar in women treated with CSII or MDI. The use of CSII in pregestational T1D women is associated with similar results in metabolic control, maternal, foetal and perinatal outcome during pregnancy to those obtained using MDI.

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