The special catalyst for paediatric gastroenterology was the introduction of digestive endoscopy, a diagnostic and therapeutic technique for children with gastroenterological diseases. Therapeutic endoscopy is an efficient and very low aggressive way solving of paediatric emergencies. Development of therapeutic endoscopy allows solving effective, rapid and less aggressive of diseases previously affordable only by surgery. Initially, many different types of rigid gastroscopes were developed. In 1932, Schinlder developed the flexible gastroscope. In Iaşi, there are 25 years of paediatric diagnostic endoscopy and 24 years of paediatric therapeutic endoscopy. Using various types of equipment and endoscopes, endoscopic ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and small-bowel enteroscopy can also be performed. Endoscopy remains a keystone in the structure of modern gastroenterology.