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The PREMATurity as pre-dictor of Children’s cardiovascular and renal Health (PRE-MATCH) is a case-control study in former ELBW children (2000–2005) and controls (term) at the median age of 12 years to compare the phenotype, including body compo-sition, renal function and cardiovascular assessment.Growth (height, weight, head circumference, Z-scores), body composition (Bodystat), renal function (renal length, cystatin C converted to eGFR), cardiovascu-lar assessment and retinal vascular aspects were assessed in former ELBW children and controls.Former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance, grip strength and high-er fat body mass. Catch–up growth for weight in ELBW children in the first two years of life was associated with lower fat body mass. Renal length and glomerular filtra-tion rate (cystatin C) were 0.28 cm (95% CI 0.09–0.47) and 11.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (6.4–16.6) lower in cases. The odds of having systolic (pre)hypertension in former ELBW cases was 6.43 (2.52–16.4) and 10.9 (2.46–48.4) with a low renin mechanism. Microvascular retinal arteriolar narrowing is observed in former ELBW young adolescents.The phenotype (growth, body composi-tion, renal function, retinal microvascularisation) of former ELBWs differs significantly from controls in early adoles-cence. All these findings reflect mechanisms related to a higher risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adult-hood.